Periodontitis is a disease that is characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. It is well established that clinical or surgical interventions are a mandatory step in the re-establishment of the health of the periodontal tissues. The advent of newer biomaterials has widened the available treatment options and has enhanced the long term prognosis of teeth with periodontal pathosis. Biomaterial Science is the confluence of physical and biological aspects of the material science. Biomaterials include bioinert, bioactive and bioresorbable materials. They are derived from vital or non vital bone sources and are composed of organic or inorganic materials. Most of these biomaterials possess structural, mechanical and biofunctional limitations and are also influenced by patient variables like age, defect size and compliance for their success. This article reviews the various advances in biomaterials and their applications in periodontal therapy.
KEY WORDS: Allogenic grafts, Alloplasts, Autogenous bone grafts, Biomaterials, Periodontitis, Xenogenic grafts.