Nanotechnology is one approach to overcome challenges of conventional drug delivery systems based on the development and fabrication of nanostructures. Some challenges associated with the technology as it relates to drug effectiveness, toxicity, stability, pharmacokinetics and drug regulatory control are discussed in this review. Clearly, nanotechnology is a welcome development that is set to transform drug delivery and drug supply chain management, if optimally developed. Electrospinning is a very simple and versatile process by which polymer nanofibers with di-ameters ranging from a few nanometers to sev-eral micrometers can be produced using an electrostatically driven jet of polymer solution or polymer melt. Significant progress has been made in this process throughout the past few years and electrospinning has advanced its ap-plications in many fields, including pharmaceu-tics. The limitations associated with the conventional therapeutics have intended the use of controlled drug delivery systems. In recent years, the hydrogel technology has been an integral part of human health care. The pharmaceutical industry has been developing hydrogel based drug delivery system in an advanced manner by tuning the structure, shape and surface modifications of the biopolymers. In the large field of nanotechnology, polymer matrix based nanocomposites have become a prominent area of current research and development. Exfoliated clay-based nanocomposites have dominated the polymer literature but there are a large number of other significant areas of current and emerging interest. This review will detail the technology involved with exfoliated clay-based nanocomposites and also include other important areas including barrier properties, flammability resistance, biomedical applications, electrical/electronic/optoelectronic applications and fuel cell interests.
KEYWORDS: Hydrogels, Drug delivery, Biomaterials, Electrospinning, Nanofibers Nanocomposites, Exfoliated clay.