Nanotechnology is an emerging field, comprising the development of materials with 5-200 nanometers in size. Like many other fields advances in nanotechnology is utilized in medicine also specially for therapeutic drug delivery and treatment for a variety of diseases and disorders. The drug is dissolved and entrapped into biodegradable nanoparticles which are specially designed to absorb drug and protecting it against chemical and enzymatic degradation. Nanotechnology is helping the delivery of pharmacologically active molecules for site-specific action with accurate dose. The most promising aspect of utilizing nanotechnology in drug delivery system is lowering of side effects by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only with accurate dose. Nanoparticles for drug delivery are prepared by a variety of materials such as proteins, polysaccharides and synthetic polymers. The selection of material depends on many factors such as the size of nanoparticles, inherent properties of the drug, surface characteristics such as charge and permeability, degree of biodegradability and most important the route of drug delivery. Gold nanoparticles are widely utilized for cancer therapy. Solid lipid nanoparticles have showed appreciable results in anti-cancer and antiviral therapy. Nanofibers, Nanosuspensions etc. are also in use. The use of nanotechnology has facilitated the delivery of many drugs in an appropriate amount and in a targeted manner.
Keywords: Drug delivery, Liposomes, Gold nanoparticles, Drug targeting, Biodegradability, dendrimers. Solid lipid nanoparticles, SPIO nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, silica nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, Liposomes.